Strategic CSR for India sustainable development

The India is first country where companies are mandated 2% of the company net profit on CSR. The first few years have not been encouraging and the CSR spends in most of the companies have not been to do strategic CSR and 2% of the company profit not properly deployed as companies has not taken long term vision and Strategic CSR approach.

What is CSR?

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is known by several names like Corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, responsible business, business ethics etc.(Free man (1994)It is a concept whereby the organisation consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and other stakeholders, as well as on the environment(Philip,2005). According to Peter, ‘social responsibility is good capitalism or on other word good capitalism is socially responsible’ (2004:215).The emergence of corporate responsibility as a concept dates back to the 1920’s .From the mid 1990’s, CSR has gained much importance with political and public debate (Frank, 2007) and is regarded as a natural component of good management. Corporate social responsibility has become an important concept today and has gained importance in the public agenda and has remained topic of interest in society (Frank, 2007). The CSR program needs to be not only on paper or in policies but needs to be thoroughly translated into action.The word ‘responsibility’ has wider meaning etymologically to be responsible is to be answerable or willing to answer. It means to act responsibly for good (Frank, 2007).It is a commitment to improve community well-being through discretionary practices and contributions of corporate resources (Philip, 2005).

Need for Strategic CSR Approach

The CSR has got huge criticism in the past but I think if the companies follow the strategic approach to CSR and direct resources to maximize social impact would be more important for India development. The companies who are taking care of the stakeholders and society at large get better edge over. The strategic CSR approach where putting the people in centre in designing CSR programme, building the business but maximizing the social impact. The strategic CSR needs to focus on long term vision and social impacts. It would determine activities to be devoted to the people based on the need and where company can utilize its resources to maximize social impact.

CSR Leadership for leading strategic CSR

To do so it would be not easy and CSR leadership plays important and it involves implementing the program taking into account that different stakeholders have different social and environmental challenges. Management and leadership is often viewed at higher levels only, but CSR practices are from staff at all level who are implementing this programme. It focuses on personal understanding and focus by individual employees (Frank,2007).CSR programmes need to be translated from paper to action and also need to have long term effects underpinned by a long-term commitment. In order to practice CSR, Management and Leadership are very important component (Frank, 2007)

Strategic CSR for India’s inclusive growth and sustainable development

The research done by Rute Abreau and Fatima David also sets the importance of CSR in Health care. This research sets the importance of global strategy for the health care system where corporate social responsibility is urgently needed. They have also highlights invest in prevention of the quality of life as a basic requirement to honour the corporate social responsibility in hospitals, health care infrastructure improvements (Abreuau and Fatima 2005). This research provides insight into how a particular target public differentiates between various CSR attributes. In doing so, it offers preliminary evidence that CSR activities are not equally valued by publics and has been critiques in the past.

The need of the hour is Strategic CSR approach which suggest that organizations should keep people needs at the centre and look into it resources to mobilize for maximizing social impact. The strategic CSR approach to development would have long term vision on social impact and it needs to be inclusive and sustainable. It would also help India to reduce burden and dependency from foreign aid and more companies need to adopt strategic CSR for India development. Companies in India now need to come forward and focus on Strategic CSR for shaping future of India and development. Nevertheless, to do so CSR leadership to drive Strategic CSR in companies would be important for shaping India’s future.

 

Global Book Launch @Amazon.com

Abhijeet BookAbhijeet Book 2Abstract

A соасh iѕ an individual whо directs and oversees the affairs оf a tеаm or a grоuр оf реорlе tо achieve a ѕеt аim. Hе iѕ оftеn timеѕ trаinеd and аt оthеr times juѕt аrmеd with natural talent fоr administration and motivation. A соасh, in fact, presides оvеr thе еntirе ореrаtiоnѕ of thе tеаm especially in the field оf еngаgеmеnt. He mау аlѕо involve himѕеlf in thе рrivаtе оr off-pitch wеlfаrе аnd lives of hiѕ ѕubоrdinаtеѕ, especially when ѕuсh intruѕiоnѕ bеаr heavily on thе реrfоrmаnсе аnd wеll-bеing оf the аthlеtе or рlауеr. A соасh mау аlѕо bе a teacher. Cоасhing аlѕо applies tо other diѕсiрlinеѕ оthеr thаn ѕроrtѕ. Almоѕt еvеrуоnе nееdѕ, оr had hаd a соасh аt оnе time оr аnоthеr for different applications. Organizations hаvе hаd nееd of рhуѕiсаl, mental аnd motivational соасhеѕ аt оnе time or another, whiсh hаѕ рrоvеn to be оf immеаѕurаblе vаluе tо thе grоwth аnd success аnd еvеn еxраnѕiоn оf thе enterprise.

Thiѕ work is аimеd аt x-raying thе modern соасh, whо hе is, what he dоеѕ, whу he is imроrtаnt tо bоth the organization аѕ regarding buѕinеѕѕ, аnd thе team as rеgаrding ѕроrtѕ. Cоасhеѕ аrе inevitable аdditiоnѕ tо thе ѕuссеѕѕ and wеll-bеing оf еvеrу аthlеtе. Thе wоrk ореnѕ with a concise definition of thе terms оf rеfеrеnсе оf a соасh, аrоund a vаriеtу оf tеrmѕ likе the соnсерt of роwеr, thе vаriоuѕ theories bеhind соасhing, thе dynamics bеhind coaching аnd the likеѕ. An аttеmрt is аlѕо mаdе tо highlight thе hiѕtоrу оf thе coaching рrоfеѕѕiоn аnd thе viсiѕѕitudеѕ it has gоnе through since timе immеmоriаl. Coaching iѕ аlѕо juxtaposed with tеаm building as well аѕ hоw it affects оrgаnizаtiоnѕ and thеir еffесtivеnеѕѕ. A сuе iѕ аlѕо tаkеn from thе ѕроrting ѕidе оf thingѕ, for соntrаѕt аnd соmраriѕоn.

The vаriоuѕ wауѕ соасhing mаkеѕ thingѕ bеttеr аѕ wеll as the best рrасtiсеѕ in thе profession are аlѕо highlightеd, as wеll as hоw tо make it most effective. Typical case ѕtudiеѕ and scenarios where thе еffесt оf coaching comes tо play are highlightеd аnd еxеmрlifiеd. As еxресtеd, thе nееd to hаvе a соасh is арtlу trеаtеd before thе finаlе оf thiѕ bооk.

Abhijeet P Sinha book

Low birth weight & weak new born baby tracking can improve survival of Neonates upto 50%

Low Birth weight babies and Weak new born tracking from Hospital to community using mobile technology

Babies born with low birth weights have a less chance of surviving the 28 day neonatal period. They succumb to problems like hypoglycemia, sepsis, prematurity, respiratory distress etc. Children that are born in the moderate or late period of gestation can be safely managed at home provided special care and support is given to them.

About 80 % of such babies can be saved by taking simple precautionary measures at the Hospitals and community level using simple Kangaroo mother care, keeping the baby warm, early and exclusive breastfeeding. Almost 39% of Low birth weight is caused due undernourishment happens during pregnancy.

The Mobile based ICT tools can help tracking LBW and Weak new born from hospital to community, tracking and management of SAM children services and referral services.

Interventions required for reducing LBW:-

Iron and folic acid supplementation along with deworming among adolescent girls.
Prevent pre-eclampsia among pregnant
Promote adequate food and nutrient intake during pregnancy to achieve a minimum weight gain of 10-12 kg
New born and up to 24 months:-
Early and exclusive breastfeeding
Timely introduction of safe, nutritious and hygienic complementary foods for children 6-24 months
Feeding for children during and after illness, diarrhoea management and management of Severely Affected Malnutrition (SAM) children.

Evidences

In studies conducted studies in Bangladesh, where the country implemented a large behaviour change programme targeting malnutrition, revealed a dramatic and positive shifts in nutrition indicators such as exclusive breastfeeding, low birth weight and wasting (Nicholas et.al 2017)

In India about 53% defecates in the open, recent research has demonstrated a quantitatively important rise between child stunting and sanitation that can perhaps tell reason for excess stunting in India (Chambers and Medeazza 2013).

Direct cash transfer scheme and mobile based/ geotag tracking
The Aanganwadi centers (AWC) preschool are not able to reach right beneficiaries and not able to tackle malnutrition issuebecause many needy families are left out and they don’t get services form AWC. Therefore, direct Cash transfers (DCT), could possibly be more effective in effective reduction in mother and child malnutrition. Leveraging ICT or Geotag technology totrack exact beneficiary is possible, to know whether services reaching the right beneficiaries. In Bihar direct cash transfer was tested and findings are encouraging, with 27% fewer children wasted, 14% less children underweight, 19% less mothers underweight. The learnings from Pakistan, Mozambique and Ethiopia is also showing similar results.
in Bihar retrospective and prospective study done on newborn survival and babies were tracked from Phc to village using Unicode sms, follow up by Asha, AWW and ANM could help increase baby survival by simple kangaroo care, keeping baby warm, early and exclusive breatfeeding and immunisation.Using chi square method it was evident that upto 50% babies could be saved with basic newborn care.
By Abhijeet P Sinha

Impact of WASH on Nutritional Status of Children in India: What are evidence telling us?

SWACH BharatAbstract

The two-leading cause of under-five mortality is diarrhea and pneumonia accounts for more than 30%. The evidence suggests us that hand washing with soap is cost effective yet very impactful intervention. Hand hygiene promotion interventions has potential to interrupt the transmission of diarrhea-causing pathogens. The Handwashing with soap can reduce significantly the incidence of diarrhea and pneumonia (Luby, 2005). As far as evidences are telling us that handwash is most cost-effective intervention and can reduce morbidity due to diarrhea by 44%. India has high number more than 50% of children’s are malnourished & under-nutrition is quite high in children from 6-24 months. Nevertheless, not only mortality but morbidity due to diarrhea and repeated occurrence in children can lead to severe malnourishment. Even the children’s borne healthy with normal weight nutrition status falls once child reached 6-24 months. Diarrhea is mainly caused by eating infected foods or liquids and person-to-person contact (mainly hand to hand then hand to mouth). Hand washing with soap is one of the most cost effective intervention. Hand wash & hygiene at key occasions specially before eating food and after toilet is important but not easy to practice and this requires behavior change and need to be practiced daily to adopt in routine habit. Children at early age during habit formation or at preschool stage need to taught & also parents need to practice that at household level. Hand wash & hygiene requires sharper behavioural change approach in the community to adopt this behavior and practice it as a daily habit. Sepsis is other leading cause of children within a month they are born and clean cord care & hand hygiene can prevent sepsis in neonate. Under-nutrition is the other leading cause of child death is often masked by the reported disease. Data says that 45% of all under-five mortality (more than 3.1 million per year) are due to diarrheaand pneumonia. (Horton, 2013).

Child malnutrition in India happens very early in life. More than half of children under five years of age in India are stunted and fail to meet their potential for growth and development. Their nutritional status deteriorates rapidly over the first two years of life and once this damage is done, catch up and recovery are almost impossible. Lack of access to WASH can affect a child’s nutritional status in many ways. Existing evidence supports at least three direct pathways: via diarrhoeal diseases, intestinal parasite infections and environmental enteropathy. Generally less evidence and fewer trials exist on the link between WASH and improved nutritional status. Nevertheless, there has been a growing interest in better understanding and measuring the effect of WASH on nutritional outcomes, and new research results provide insights into the relationship. The primary objective of this implementation research is to generate operational evidence on “how” WASH interventions can be integrated to improve nutrition outcomes of children.

In the study done by (Liu, 2012) certain WASH interventions can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality due to diarrhea which is second leading cause of under five child mortality. In this study it came out clearly Handwashing with Soap is 44% effective, household water treatment about 39%, Sanitation 32%, Water supply 25% and source water treatment 11%.(Liu,2012) It would be very important to emphasizes on hand washing interventions in India Nutrition and WASH program. Hand hygiene needs to be integral with all nutrition and health interventions. The need of the hour is to integrate Hand Hygiene in all Nutrition programme and this will certainly result in better Nutritional outcomes in Children. The sustainable Nutrition can be achieved only through integrating Hand hygiene with all nutrition programme in India. This means that the likelihood of the child being born with low birth weight is increase if the mother is undernourished before and during pregnancy. In other words, nutritional deprivations before and during pregnancy can contribute to poor nutrition status of the new born, with poor caring and feeding practices further exacerbating the situation. It is now well established that the consequences of chronic under-nutrition are profound, irreversible and life-long. At least 45 per cent of child mortality is attributable to poor nutrition; those children who survive under-nutrition face a diminished life. Their physical and mental development is likely to be impaired, hence they are less likely to perform well in school, less economically productive in adulthood, and at risk of nutrition related chronic illnesses such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The underlying reasons for high maternal and child undernutrition, especially in resource poor settings, include poor access to health and environmental services, food insecurity, poor maternal education and caring capacity. The risk of severe stunting was three times higher among children that belong to the poorest as compared to those from the two richest wealth quintiles.

Undernutrition can span across generations and affect all stages of the life cycle. Girls suffering from undernutrition are likely to become undernourished mothers who are, in turn, more likely to give birth to low birth weight infants. For example, severe anaemia during pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight babies. Low birth weight babies are, in turn, more likely to die or become stunted. Adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable to undernutrition because they have high nutrient needs due to growth and because they are at risk for becoming pregnant (Black et al., 2013).

Lack of access to WASH can affect a child’s nutritional status in many ways. Existing evidence supports at least three direct pathways: via diarrhoeal diseases, intestinal parasite infections and environmental enteropathy.

Diarrhoea: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among children under 5 years of age. Children under 5 years of age in low-income countries experience on average 2.9 episodes of diarrhoea per year, with the highest incidence rates in the first 2 years of life – the critical window for a child’s development (Fischer Walker et al., 2012). Diarrhoea and undernutrition form part of a vicious cycle. Diarrhoea can impair nutritional status through loss of appetite, malabsorption of nutrients and increased metabolism (Caulfield et al., 2004; Petri et al., 2008; Dewey & Mayers, 2011). Frequent episodes of diarrhoea in the first 2 years of life increase the risk of stunting and can impair cognitive development (Grantham-McGregor et al., 2007; Victora et al., 2008). At the same time, undernourished children have weakened immune systems, which make them more susceptible to enteric infections and lead to more severe and prolonged episodes of diarrhoea (Caulfield et al., 2004).

Intestinal parasitic infections: Soil-transmitted helminth infections – roundworm, whipworm and hookworm – affect millions of people worldwide (WHO, 2013c). Soil-transmitted helminth infections are directly caused by poor sanitation. Helminth eggs and larvae can survive for months in the soil and can infect humans when ingested (e.g. via contaminated water or food), by contact with fomites or by direct contact with the skin when walking barefoot on contaminated soil (hookworm larvae). Soil-transmitted helminth infections can affect nutritional status by causing malabsorption of nutrients, loss of appetite and increased blood loss. Heavy infections with whipworm and roundworm can impair growth (O’Lorcain & Holland, 2000). Hookworm infections are a major cause of anaemia in pregnant women and children. As many as one third of pregnant women in Africa are at risk of hookworm-related anaemia (Brooker, Hotez & Bundy, 2008), which in turn increases the risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight babies and, eventually, child undernutrition (Black et al., 2013). Environmental Enteropathy: Enteric pathogens can impair nutritional status even in the absence of symptoms such as diarrhoea. Children living in poor sanitary conditions are exposed to a high load of pathogens, especially between 6 months and 2 years of age, when they start crawling on the floor and putting objects into their mouths (Ngure et al., 2014). Chronic ingestion of pathogens can cause recurring inflammation and damage to the gut, leading to malabsorption of nutrients. This condition is often referred to as environmental enteropathy or environmental enteric dysfunction (Humphrey, 2009). Researchers suggest that environmental enteropathy may be an important cause of poor growth and may compromise the efficacy of nutritional interventions (Humphrey, 2009; Korpe & Petri, 2012). Several reviews highlighting the mounting evidence for links between unhygienic environments and gut dysfunction have recently been published (Humphrey, 2009; Korpe & Petri, 2012; Prendergast & Kelly, 2012). A large number of systematic reviews have been conducted to assess the impact of WASH interventions on diarrhoea incidence and prevalence (Esrey, Feachem & Hughes, 1985; Esrey et al., 1991; Fewtrell et al., 2005; Clasen et al., 2006, 2010; Arnold & Colford, 2007; Ejemot et al., 2008; Waddington et al., 2009; Norman, Pedley& Takkouche, 2010). The magnitude of the effect that WASH interventions have on diarrhoea mortality and morbidity varies depending on a number of factors, including the type and quality of the interventions, populations targeted, pathogens circulating in the environment, study design and methodological quality. According to the most recent global burden of disease estimates, access to improved WASH could prevent 361 000 diarrhoeal deaths per year among children under 5 years of age, representing 58% of the total diarrhoea deaths in this age group. This analysis also suggests that the greatest reductions in diarrhoea mortality (up to 73%) can be achieved through services that provide safe and continuous piped water supply and through sewerage connections that remove excreta from both households and community environments (Pruss-Ustun et al., 2014). Furthermore, recent meta-analyses have found that improving a range of WASH services and practices in households reduces the incidence of soil-transmitted helminth infections by, on average, one third (Ziegelbauer et al., 2012; Strunz et al., 2014).

Hand washing with soap is one of a range of hygiene promotion interventions that can interrupt the transmission of diarrhoea-causing pathogens. The leading cause of child mortality is pneumonia at 18%. Evidence indicates that hand washing with soap can significantly reduce the incidence of pneumonia in addition to diarrhoea (Luby, 2005). Generally,less evidence and fewer trials exist on the link between WASH and improved nutritional status compared with WASH and the incidence of diarrhoea or soil-transmitted helminth infections. Nevertheless, there has been a growing interest in better understanding and measuring the effect of WASH on nutritional outcomes, and new research results provide insights into the relationship.

A Cochrane review identified five cluster randomized controlled trials to measure the effect of WASH interventions on nutritional status (Dangour et al., 2013). These five studies, conducted in low-income settings, found evidence for a small, but statistically significant, effect of WASH interventions on stunting. The interventions were limited to water quality and/or hygiene and were of short duration, and no study considered the effect of a complete package of WASH interventions (Du Preez, McGuigan & Conroy, 2010; Du Preez et al., 2011). Whereas the Cochrane review suggests that WASH interventions can improve nutritional status. The proposed implementation research will provide more robust operational evidence on how and by how much different WASH interventions influence nutritional outcomes and identify the most effective ways of linking WASH with Nutrition.

By Abhijeet P Sinha